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Color of Honey

Honey usually is in yellow, amber, greenish brown and reddish colors starting from yellow until dark red. According to their colors honey is divided into four groups as; water white, extra white, extra light amber, dark color. Substances giving color to honey are; chlorophyll, carotene, xanthophyll and plant pigments, composition of which is unknown and creating the yellow and green colors.

In 1930 in New Zealand, a researcher named Thomson examined the relationship between the color of honey and its chemical composition and he reported that in honey of dark color, amino acid and sugar amount and quantities of particularly iron, copper, manganese from among mineral substances are at high level and the more mineral substances in honey the darker is its color.
Taste and Aroma of Honey

Each honey has its own taste special to itself. If tasted carefully many savors are felt. Aroma of honey could change depending on the particularity, esters present in the nectar of various flowers . Basic matters of the aroma in honey are; esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and free acids. Alcohols occupy the largest place among these matters. While aroma matters come from nectar which is mostly raw material; depending on the plants which the nectar is collected from; it is possible to feel in this honey the aroma of that plant.
Fragrance of Honey

As depending on the pollen inside it, the honey has a particular fragrance. The fragrance of honey is felt in the mouth while eating it. Very much heated honey loses most of its aroma matters. In case, honey is stored next to a substance of powerful fragrance, it has the feature to draw the foreign fragrance of that substance, too.  In general, dark colored honey has a stronger fragrance and they are more acidic compared to light colored honey types.
Consistence of Honey

The type of the plant which the honey is obtained from affects the consistence of the honey type. The honey being clear or blurred; depends on whether they are many or few the air bubbles, water content and colloid matters (small size particles) in the honey. While plants grown in hot zones and mildly sandy soils generate strong consistence honey; honey types generated from flowers in highlands and mountainous zones are fluent and superior in respect of taste and aroma.

Hygroscopic Property of Honey

Honey is a hygroscopic substance and it has the property to draw the humidity of the air in the medium it is present. The property of honey to draw humidity from air changes depending on the specific structure of it, its sugar rate and the amount of water in it.

Crystallization of Honey

Crystallization is the honey losing more or less its fluidity when the glucose in it is transformed into particles. Major part of honey types tend to get crystallized. Also the plant sources which the honey is obtained from have an impact on crystallization.
Practical method to make it liquid the crystallized honey; is to keep the honey container inside hot water not hotter than 38-45°C. While sunflower, clover, melon, common dandelion, cotton honey types get crystallized very rapidly; locust, mustard, rhododendron and honeydew honey types get crystallized late. Sage honey can stay for years without getting crystallized.


Because, honey has an antibacterial property, no microorganisms can live and multiply in it. In “apitherapy” named as treatment by bee products developed rapidly in the whole World in recent years; honey, too, is being used in addition to bee venom, propolis, royal jelly and pollen.

The Proteins in Honey
Nitrous substances are present in rates of approximately 0,3% and 1% in flower honey types and honeydew honey types, respectively. Nitrous substances coming out high in flower honey types shows that these are mixed with honeydew honey types. Determining the proteins in the honey bears significance in respect of whether the honey is natural or artificial and in terms of nutrition.
Although honey is not a foodstuff rich in proteins, it possesses an amino acid source rich in number. Proteins are formed when the molecules we call amino acid and comprised of  carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms come together in line next to each other like string of beads. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

Approximately 17 amino acids have been determined in honey. While tyrosine and triptophane are present in dark color honey types, these haven’t been detected in light color honey types. It has been reported that quantitavely in honey what mostly are present are proline, lysine and glutamic acid, respectively. Hystidine, arginine, treonine, serine, glycine, valine, methionine, leucine, alanine, phenylalanine, follow these.
The Vitamins in Honey

While in the past the dominant thought was that no vitamins or very few vitamins are present in honey, as result of the chemical and biologic researches carried out in recent years; it has been detected that some various vitamins are present in honey. While vitamin A is not present in honey, group B vitamins (B1, B4) and vitamins C, E and K are present in honey. Thiamine, riboflavine, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine (B6) pentothenic acid (B5) nicotinic acid (B3) niasin biotin and folic acid have been detected in various quantities in honey.

In the research they made Watt and Merril; reported vitamin B1 in trace amount in honey, vitamin B2 as 0,4 mg. and vitamin C at a level of 10 mg. During filtering process the honey may lose most of these vitamins. So, that’s why the process must be done very carefully.
The Mineral Substances in Honey

Amount of mineral substances in honey; exhibits changes between  0,02% -  1,0%. Inside honey; potassium, calcium, posphorus are mostly found whereas, sodium, chlorine, sulphur, magnesium, silisium, manganese, copper, iodine iron and zinc are present in lesser amounts.

The minerals present in honey which is a rich source of minerals; are potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), chlorine (CL), posphorus (P), sulphur (S), silica (SİO2) and raw silica. And, mineral substances present in trace amount; are chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) tin (Sn), zinc (Zn), osmium (Os), beryllium (Be), vanadium (V), zirconium (Zr), silver (Ag), barium (Ba), galium (Ga), bismuth (Bi), aurum (Au), germanium (Ge) and strontium (Sr).

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